Saul Bellow was born in 1915 to Russian parents newly immigrated from St. Petersburg to a suburb of Montreal. He was raised in Chicago and attended university there. During World War II, he served in the merchant marines and, in 1944, he published his first novel, Dangling Man. Bellow went on to publish thirteen more novels and three collections of short stories, as well as plays, reviews, and essays, winning the National Book Award three times: for The Adventures of Augie March, Herzog, and Mr. Sammler’s Planet. His novel Humboldt’s Gift won him the Pulitzer Prize; the following year, he was awarded the Nobel Prize. Bellow published his last novel, Ravelstein, in 2000. He died in Boston in April 2005.